In the recent years, researchers have been able to create genetically modified mosquitoes to control the spread of the malaria. Malaria is estimated to cause 0.7 to 2.7 million deaths per year especially in the tropical countries. Mosquitoes are the vectors for spreading the malaria as they are the carriers of the parasites, Plasmodium which actually causes the malaria.
To control the spread of malaria, transgenic mosquitoes have been created that express antiparasitic gene in their midgut epithelium thus making them incapable of spreading the disease. When the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum enters the body of its host (mosquito), it migrates from the insect’s gut to the salivary glands. The researchers (Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena et al from Case Western University, Cleveland, Ohio) inserted a synthetic gene that interferes with this migration by encoding a peptide that prevents the parasite from traversing the insect gut.
To control the spread of Dengue fever, genetically modified male mosquitoes containing a lethal gene have been developed. Dengue fever is a virus-induced disease that is spread by mosquitoes in tropical countries. Between 50 -100 million people are affected by Dengue fever every year and 40,000 people die from it. There is no cure or treatment for Dengue fever except proper rest and drinking plenty of fluids.
The GM mosquitoes, also known as OX513A, were created in Oxford University. Later a British Company, Oxitech, developed them for field use. These male GM mosquitoes carried an extra gene, or inserted bacterium or had gene altered so that either their offspring are sterile or simply die. The male mosquitoes when mate with the natural females, the larvae produced die due to the accumulation of an enzyme that is toxic enough to kill them. Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes, the single most important carrier of dengue fever, were reduced by 80% in a 2010 trial of these GM mosquitoes in the Cayman Islands where almost 3.3 million sterile transgenic male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were released. When these GM mosquitoes mate, their offspring die or if the males don’t find a female, they die anyway. Similar field trials have been carried out in Malaysia as well.
This is Glofish. As in GM monkeys, they have received GFP of jellyfish so they could have glowing body as seen in the picture.
SPIDER SILK PRODUCING GOAT
Researchers from the University of Wyoming have developed a way to incorporate spiders' silk-spinning genes into goats, allowing the researchers to harvest the silk protein from the goats’ milk for a variety of applications. For instance, due to its strength and elasticity, spider silk fiber could have several medical uses, such as for making artificial ligaments and tendons, for eye sutures, and for jaw repair. The silk could also have applications in bulletproof vests.
The Enviropig™ is a genetically enhanced line of Yorkshire pigs with the capability of digesting plant phosphorus more efficiently than conventional Yorkshire pigs.
BRAINBOW TRANSGENIC MICE
In 'Brainbow' transgenic mice, nerve cells randomly express fluorescent proteins of different colors. Combinations of these proteins label neurons with multiple distinct hues, as seen here neurons of the hippocampus (confocal microscopy, dentate gyrus).CREDIT: Livet et al. Nature 1st Nov 2007
A team of University of Tokyo researchers led by professors Hitoshi Sakano and Ko Kobayakawa have announced they have genetically engineered a mouse that does not fear cats, simply by controlling its sense of smell. By tweaking genes to disable certain functions of the olfactory bulb which is area of the brain that receives information about smells directly from olfactory receptors in the nose.
Cats With Red Fluorescent protein
This is a mouse that is resistant to spontaneous and artifically induced tumours due to the insertion of a gene called Par-4. This protein speciafically kills the cancer cells with out affecting normal cells. This Cancer- resistant mouse was developed by Scientists from the University of Kentucky.
This mice was developed in the laboratory of Dr. Richard Hanson at Case Western University which earned the nickname as they can run for 25 times as long as normal mice at the same speed, eat more and live longer.
The mice get much of their energy during exercise from fatty acids and generate very little lactic acid, possibly explaining their ability to run so long. This is being used as a good model to study various aspects of aging.
This goat contains a human gene that codes for a blood clotting agent. The blood clotting agent can be harvested in the goat’s milk.