Regeneration pathways of plants
The plants can be regenerated by a) organogenesis and b) somatic embryogenesis.
Organogenesis refers to the formation of organs from the cultured explants. The shoot buds or monopolar structures are formed by manipulating the ratio of cytokinin to auxin in the cultures.
In Somatic embryogenesis, the totipotent cells may undergo embryogenic pathway to form somatic embryos which are grown to regenerate into complete plants. It was demonstrated for the first time in carrots (Daucus carota
), where bipolar embryos developed from single cells. The somatic embryogenesis is influenced by plant extracts, growth regulators, and by the physiological state of calli.